Science News 2017

Pink_sq Life and Health

** Life and Health-N-1

Posted: October
Topics: Social behavior of the medaka fish
Title: Individual recognition and the ‘face inversion effect’ in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes)
Journal: eLife

Main results: Abstract Individual recognition (IR) is essential for maintaining various social interactions in a group, and face recognition is one of the most specialised cognitive abilities in IR. We used both a mating preference system and an electric shock conditioning experiment to test IR ability in medaka, and found that signals near the face are important. Medaka required more time to discriminate vertically inverted faces, but not horizontally shifted faces or inverted non-face objects. The ability may be comparable to the classic ‘face inversion effect’ in humans and some other mammals. These findings suggest the possibility that the process of face recognition may differ from that used for other objects. The complex form of recognition may promote specific processing adaptations, although the mechanisms and neurological bases might differ in mammals and medaka.
Ref/DOI: Life and Health-N-1

Sq_Black Energy and Matter

** Energy and Matter-N-1

Posted: April
Topics: Neutrino mass spectroscopy – Neutrino mass determination from “atomic” neutrinos
Title: Recent progress in neutrino mass Spectroscopy
Journal: Journal of Physics

Main results: The paper deals with the determination of the absolute neutrino mass by using a cooperative de-excitation of atoms in a metastable level emitting a neutrino pair associated with a photon. The photon energy spectrum of this process contains information on the absolute mass of neutrino. Key items of this experiment are a rate amplification using macro-coherence and an external triggering of the emission in order to scan the spectrum. We have demonstrated the rate amplification in two-photon emission from para-hydrogen gas which was coherently excited to its first vibrationally excited state.
Ref/DOI: Energy and Matter-N-1

** Energy and Matter-N-2

Posted: Nov
Topics: Topological superconducting materials
Title: Spin-rotation symmetry breaking in the superconducting state of Cu_xBi_2Se_3
Journal: Nature Physics

Main results: Spontaneous symmetry breaking is an important concept for understanding physics ranging from the elementary particles to states of matter.  In particular, spin-rotational symmetry is expected to be broken in spin-triplet superconductors. Here, using 77Se nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, we show that spin-rotation symmetry is spontaneously broken in the hexagonal plane of the electron-doped topological insulator Cu0.3Bi2Se3 below the superconducting transition temperature Tc =3.4 K. Our results not only establish spin-triplet superconductivity in thiscompound, but may also serve to lay a foundation for the research of topological superconductivity.
Ref/DOI: Energy and Matter-N-2

** Energy and Matter-N-3

Posted: Nov.
Topics: Topological superconducting materials
Title: Charge-density-wave order takes over antiferromagnetism in Bi_2Sr_(2-x)La_xCuO_6 superconducters
Journal: Nature communications

Main results: Superconductivity appears in the cuprates when a spin order is destroyed, while the role of charge is less known. Recently, charge density wave (CDW) was found below the superconducting dome in YBa2Cu3Oy when a high magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the CuO2 plane, which was suggested to arise from incipient CDW in the vortex cores that becomes overlapped. Here, by 63Cu-nuclear magnetic resonance, we report the discovery of CDW induced by an in-plane field that does not create vortex cores in the plane, setting in above the dome in single-layered Bi2Sr2−xLaxCuO6.The onset temperature TCDW takes over the antiferromagnetic order temperature TN beyond a critical doping level at which superconductivity starts to emerge, and scales with the psudogap temperature T∗. These results provide important insights into the relationship between spin order, CDW and the pseudogap, and their connections to high-temperature superconductivity.
Ref/DOI: Energy and Matter-N-3

Sq_Orange Engineering and Modeling

Sq_Green Living earth and Environment

** Living earth-N-1

Posted: March
Topics: Photosynthesis
Title: Light-induced structural changes and the site of O=O bond formation in PSII caught by XFEL
Journal: Nature

Main results: 2 lines max
Ref/DOI: Living earth-N-1

Sq_Blue Humanities and Social sciences

** Humanities-N-1

Posted: April
Topics: Violence in the prehistoric period of Japan: the spatio-temporal pattern of skeletal evidence for violence in the Jomon period
Title:Violence in the prehistoric period of Japan: the spatio-temporal pattern of skeletal evidence for violence in the Jomon period
Journal: Biology Letters

Main results: 2 lines max
Ref/DOI: Humanities-N-1